Outdoor Life: Outdoor Life: Pedagogy II 1202

Course Objectives

Central concepts in this subject are the value and potential opportunities of outdoor life, and the problems and opportunities related to realising these in outdoor education. The course will provide knowledge of the main characteristics, intrinsic qualities and basic theoretical perspectives on outdoor life and education, and form a basis for pedagogic work within the field. Students will develop the ability to analyse their own and others’ contributions within the sphere of outdoor life and education. In conjunction with other courses, this course will provide the basic knowledge and values for acquiring skills as a guide. The course supplements and offers the opportunity for intensive study of themes that may also be applicable to other subjects, particularly in relation to practical-methodical teaching within the various branches of outdoor life.

Course Description

  • The group as a social-psychological phenomenon and as a working method. The norms and structures of groups. Groups in the context of outdoor life - do they share any particular common characteristics? Group dynamics and developmental processes in outdoor life groups. The development of companionship, the development of groups. The group under pressure. Attitudes, dissonance theory, attribution, conflicts and maturation.
  • Leadership in outdoor life. Types of leadership and various leadership roles. ‘Leadership characteristics’. Traditional forms of leadership in the sphere of outdoor life: the trip leader, the guide and the instructor. Distributive leadership. The leader’s tasks and functions in outdoor activities - what constitutes leadership, and which functions should it fulfil? Responsibilities, tasks and challenges.
  • Learning in outdoor life as a process, and process-oriented leadership. Problem orientation / project orientation / process orientation. Situational learning, situational leadership. Inherent pedagogy, unintended learning, hidden learning and confluent pedagogy.
  • Guidance methodology. To discover, shape, define and exploit learning situations. Working techniques, the ‘tricks’ and methods involved. The phases of a learning process. Safety, trip standards and procedures. Planning versus improvisation.
  • The development of the leadership role in outdoor life. Leadership as self-education. Demands and prerequisites for leadership in outdoor life. Value orientation and self-reflection. Evaluation and self-evaluation. The stages and phases in the development of competence and ability. Ambivalences, paradoxes and problems related to the leader-role in outdoor life. Execution and evaluation of pedagogical programmes in outdoor life. Active research.
  • Outdoor life and the pedagogic traditions of the subject. The problematic areas of pedagogy, ambitions and pretensions and inherent pedagogy. Social interpretations, views of humanity, views of nature and knowledge. Pedagogy in relation to values.
  • Pedagogical values and potential opportunities in the tradition of outdoor life. Outdoor life as a humanising factor. Inherent pedagogy. Physical/sensual recognition, actions and understanding of concepts. Ideologies and validation in outdoor life.
  • Knowledge as a social phenomenon. Modernity as representing changes in knowledge-regimes and the subsequent consequences for the individual, society and culture. Knowledge and learning in the pre-industrial society. Patterned cultural responses and knowledge. The concept of socialisation. Pedagogy’s struggle to expose and/or build upon ‘natural learning’.
  • The concept of knowledge. To know and understand. The interplay between the body, feelings and reason. Knowledge, action and change. ‘Silent’ knowledge, action-dependent knowledge. Mastering, situation and context-dependent competence. Pattern-recognition learning. ‘Episteme, techne and pronesis’.
  • Outdoor life, identity and personal development. Views on personal development; change and development in Norwegian and continental traditions concerning outdoor life. Psychological and ecosophical perspectives on the significance of nature for personality development. Outdoor life as a form of therapy.
  • Outdoor life as an educational method, especially in schools. Experience and practice, and various efforts to create theories: the concept of motivation; ‘silent’ learning – unintentional learning – inherent pedagogy; the ‘situation’ concept. The goal/means question: confluent pedagogy; experience and knowledge. How to advance from experience to knowledge and reflected recognition?
  • Observation practice. During the observation practice, the students will follow an experienced guide. Students will primarily observe, evaluate and reflect. The students themselves are expected to find a relevant practice placement, which must be approved by a course instructor. On the basis of the observation practice, the students will submit a memo/abstract which should be submitted at the obligatory practice seminar during the spring semester.

Learning Methods

Instruction is given during the autumn and spring semesters. During the autumn semester, the emphasis will be on practical-pedagogical, didactic and methodical approaches associated with outdoor education, with a special focus on the tasks, problems and possibilities of leadership. In the spring, this focus will be expanded to include discussions of the pedagogic potential of outdoor education in today and tomorrow’s society.
The course is comprised of lectures, obligatory observation practice (4 days), obligatory seminars and work in study groups. The study groups will work in two ways: first, topics will be taken up for discussion and evaluation in groups with their mentor guides in connection with hikes in various kinds of terrain; and second, study groups will discuss themes, and take notes, with a broader thematic approach in relation to the lectures.

Assessment Methods

Individual written take-home examination/essay. Graded evaluation. It is expected that the students will, based on given topic areas, choose two possible topics for an essay at the beginning of the academic year. They will have an opportunity to collect material for the essay during the course. Before they may submit their written essays, the students must first have completed their practice periods and had this approved, delivered their practice reports and participated in the practice seminar.

Minor adjustments may occur during the academic year, subject to the decision of the Dean

Publisert av / forfatter Carl-Magnus Nystad <Carl-Magnus.NystadSPAMFILTER@hit.no>, last modified Liang Xiaoli - 01/12/2006